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Glossary of Terms: G

Geosequestration: (see also Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage, Ocean Sequestration) CO2 capture and storage system that seeks put CO2 under ground in old oil and gas fields, non commercial coal fields and saline aquifers.

Global Warming Potential (GWP): compares the relative potential of the 6 greenhouse gases to contribute to global warming. The additional heat / energy impact of all other greenhouse gases are compared with the impacts of carbon dioxide (CO2) and referred to in terms of a CO2 equivalent (CO2e). GWP changes with time, and the IPCC has suggested using 100-year GWP for comparison purposes. 

Carbon Dioxide (CO2) GWP: 1
Methane (CH4) GWP: 21
Nitrous Oxide (N2O) GWP: 310
Hydrofluorocarbns (HFCs) GWP: 150 – 11,700
Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) GWP: 6,500 – 9,200
Sulphur Hexafluoride (SF6) GWP: 23,900

Gold Standard: Initiated by WWF, SSN and Helio International the Gold Standard for CDM projects was launched in 2003 after a wide-ranging stakeholder consultation among key actors of the carbon market as well as governments. It offers project developers a tool with which they can ensure that the CDM and JI deliver credible projects with real environmental benefits and, in so doing, give confidence to host countries and the public that projects represent new and additional investments in sustainable energy services.

Grandfathering: Method for issuing emission permits to emitters and firms in a domestic emission trading scheme according to their historical emissions. This method of allocation may be combined with Auctioning.

Green-e: A voluntary certification program for renewable energy. The Green-e logo indicates energy options that meet strict standards set through a collaborative process with environmentalists, consumer advocates, and energy experts. The Green-e Program verifies that participating suppliers are purchasing enough renewable electricity or certificates to meet their customers’ needs.

Greenhouse Gas Effect: the effect that releasing greenhouse gas emissions has on the relative warming of the earth’s atmosphere. Greenhouse gases present in the atmosphere absorb outgoing infrared radiation from the earth's surface causing some heat to be retained. The release of too much greenhouse gas over a period of time results in a gradual warming of the atmosphere.

Greenhouse Gas Reduction: a reduction in emissions that is recognized to contribute to climate change – e.g. carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulfur hexofluoride. Greenhouse gas reductions are often measured in tons of carbon dioxide-equivalent.

Greenhouse Gases (GHGs): Greenhouse gases are trace gases that control energy flows in the Earth's atmosphere by absorbing infra-red radiation. Some GHGs occur naturally in the atmosphere, while others result from human activities. The Kyoto Protocol regulates 6 GHGs which are determined to be the main contributors to the Greenhouse Effect:

Carbon Dioxide (CO2)

Methane (CH4)

Nitrous Oxide (N2O)

Hydrofluorocarbons (HFC's)

Perfluorocarbons (PFC's)

Sulphur Hexofluoride (SF6).

Group of 77 and Others: This group of developing countries is a major force in Kyoto Protocol negotiations. It has increased from the original 77 countries to more than 130.