Land Conservation: Land conservation prevents the release of carbon into the atmosphere, which occurs when lands come into production, by preventing production (eg. agriculture) from occurring.
GHG Sequestration & Project Quantification: Farmers and/or landowners enter into conservation agreements that restrict the activities implemented on contracted lands. Keeping the lands out of production maintains the carbon currently stored in the plant matter and soils of the conserved land, and the conserved vegetation continues to increase carbon sequestration. Such actions can be scientifically quantified through periodic soil/plant samples that measure the carbon levels in the soil and any increases in sequestration.
Additionality: Entering into conservation agreements is a voluntary action by the landowner.
Verification: can be verified by independent third parties to confirm that lands are held out of production and that the scientific measurement is consistent.
Ancillary Benefits: a) Protection of local ecosystem that is easy to publicly identify, b) Positive public relations
Landfill/Biomass Capture: Fugitive methane (CH4) produced from landfill decomposition normally migrates into the atmosphere. Installing a CH4 recovery system and combusting the CH4 reduces landfill CH4 emissions.
GHG Reduction & Project Quantification: Global Warming Potential (GWP) of methane (CH4) = 21, GWP of CO2 = 1. Combustion of 1 tonne of CH4 produces 2.75 tonnes of CO2; therefore the capture and combustion of 1 tonne of otherwise fugitive CH4 emissions yields a GWP benefit of at least 18.25 tonnes of CO2 equivalent. If the captured CH4 is used as an energy source (on-site or delivered into a pipeline) the full 21 tons of GHG reductions can be claimed.
Additionality: Represented landfill gas projects are done in addition to exsiting regulations. Projects either voluntarily collect CH4 when not mandated or extract additional amounts of CH4 than required (done by creating extra collection wells). Also, the Seller has established an emissions baseline from which GHG reductions sold will be surplus.
Verification: Meter records, pipeline records, electricity production records and/or gas sales receipts can be used for verification and auditing purposes.
Ancillary Benefits: a) CH4 that migrates from a landfill can become explosive, landfill gas capture reduces this threat to surrounding communities, b) Promotion of the landfill gas as sustainable/renewable energy source, c) Odour reduction, and d) Potential to enter into a gas purchase agreement with Seller.
Leakage: portion of cuts in greenhouse-gas emissions by developed countries -- countries trying to meet mandatory limits under the Kyoto Protocol -- that may reappear in other countries not bound by such limits. For example, multinational corporations may shift factories from developed countries to developing countries to escape restrictions on emissions.
Levy Exemption Certificate (LEC): LECs are certificates used by electricity suppliers against their Climate Chancge Levy (CCL)
Load Serving Entity (LSE): A retail electricity provider.