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Glossary of Terms: P

Particulate Matter: In the New Source Review program, PM represent emissions of any material, except uncombined water, which exists in a finely divided form as a liquid or solid at standard conditions. PM10 is PM emissions with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 microns or less.

Perfluorocarbons (PFCs): developed and introduced, alongside HFCs, as an alternative to ozone depleting CFC’s and HCFC’s. PFCs are emitted as by-products of industrial processes and are also used in manufacturing. They do not harm the stratospheric ozone layer, but they are powerful greenhouse gases. The predominant gases are CF4 and C2f6. CF4 has a global warming potential (GWP) of 6,500 and C2f6 has a GWP of 9,200.

Policies and measures (PAMs): A frequently used phrase -- sometimes abbreviated as PAMs -- referring to the steps taken or to be taken by countries to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions under the UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol. Some possible policies and measures are listed in the Protocol and could offer opportunities for intergovernmental cooperation.

Precautionary Principal: In reference to the Kyoto Protocol, the idea that action to forestall large-scale, irreversible damage from climate change is warranted even though the risks of climate change are not yet fully understood.

Primary Market: The exchange of emission reductions, offsets, or allowances between buyer and seller where the seller is the originator of the supply. The exchange of greenhouse gas emission reductions is currently conducted only in the primary market (vs. the secondary market).

Process Change: an improvement of the emissions associated directly with a manufacturing process. For example, improving the composition of klinker to reduce emissions of CO2e in cement manufacture or improving the recycled content in the aluminium smelting process.

Project Design Document (PDD): Document completed by project developers detailing scope of project, methodology and anticipated emissions reductions.

Project Idea Note (PIN): a short form of project description that provides such basic information about the project as type, size and location of the project; estimation of the anticipated total amount of Greenhouse Gas (GHG), reduction compared to the “business-as-usual” scenario, etc.

Project Scenario: An emission reduction project's emission forecast. In some cases the project scenario may be nil but its operations may reduce emissions in the existing operations of the business. The Project Scenario is compared with the existing operations Business as Usual (or baseline) scenario to determine the emission reductions achieved by the emission reduction project.

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